The final conference of the ZiF Research Group 'Control of Violence' took place on September 10 - 13, 2008 with support of the German Research Foundation. It centered on the question whether we are currently facing an increasing loss of control over violence. During the conference the members of the 2007/2008 research group at the ZiF presented their results and opened them to a wider international audience for critical review and debate. The seventeen contributions covered a broad range of issues focussing either on one of the exemplary phenomena of violence under consideration, i.e. school shootings, terrorist attacks and forms of violence in the context of 'fragile' states, or discussing cross-cutting aspects and mechanisms of a loss of control over violence in a more general perspective such as the meaning of individual conscience or public discourses.