Under certain specific conditions, disabled students receiving student grants (BAföG) can have their disability or chronic illness taken into account when calculating their income and wealth and the maximum length of time they will receive a student grant. For example, if studies take longer due to a student´s special needs, that student may receive a BAföG grant for longer than the standard period of study.
You can find more information [in German] on the Webpage "Infos rund ums Studium" hosted by the Studierendenwerk Bielefeld [Association for Student Affairs] that is responsible for all BAföG queries.
In recent years, the well-known organizations for the promotion of young talent have been supplemented by numerous scholarship arrangements that focus on supporting students with special needs. You can find out more about the various scholarships from the Webpages of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) by downloading the flyer "Stipendienlotse (in German)".