PhD on "pattern recognition in honey bees" at the University of Stuttgart. In the lab of Prof. Bässler, University of Kaiserslautern, he started his investigations on motor control in stick insects applying the methods of behavioral physiology and computer simulation. Basic questions have been: how are the six legs coordinated to allow a stable walking pattern even under irregular environmental conditions" How is the movement of the single leg controlled" In general, the investigations have shown how complex behavior can emerge from extremely decentralized structures. In the lab of Prof. F. Clarac, Arcachon, he expanded his work on insects to study similar questions using the lobster and crayfish as subjects. During a leave at the University of Berkeley he started working on human arm control. Already in a preliminary form in his PhD, but in a systematic way since about 1986, he performed simulation studies using artificial neural network. In cooperation with engineers the results are being used to control six-legged walking robots. The long term goal of this research is to construct an autonomous system and in this way to understand the principles underlying autonomy. In this context he is interested how internal world models may be used to plan and control movements thus forming the basis for cognition. This includes questions concerning the relation between unconscious and voluntary decisions as well as the grounding of language.