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Sarah K. Kozlowski (The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA): Toward a history of the Trecento diptych: Format, materiality, and mobility in a corpus of diptychs from Angevin Naples
Laying the groundwork for a larger project, this essay brings together for the first time a working corpus of diptychs connected with the Angevin court in Naples in the later thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Comprising both surviving diptychs and diptychs now lost but recorded in inventories, this body of material reveals that objects of this type were commissioned and collected in significant numbers at the Neapolitan court, in a range of sizes, mediums, and subjects, and were produced by workshops linked not only to Naples but also to central Italy, Genoa, and the Eastern Mediterranean. In turn, diptychs in Naples raise larger questions about the histories, materialities, and meanings of the format in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Europe and the Mediterranean. Above all, the objects brought together here press us to set diptychs in motion through networks of artworks, artists, and patrons on the move across the Mediterranean.
Didier Martens (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgien): Entre vérité historique et dévotion: Madones de saint Luc mises en scène dans deux tableaux flamands de la Première Renaissance
Circa 1515–1520, Josse van Cleve painted a St Jerome in the Wilderness (Muskegon Museum of Art) in which the saint is shown kneeling before an exemplar of the Aracoeli Madonna. Somewhat later, a follower of Barent van Orley introduced a version of the Madonna del Popolo into a representation of the Procession of Pope Gregory the Great (Brussels, Musees royaux des Beaux-Arts). This phenomenon of displaying Byzantine icons in Flemish religious pictures must be investigated in the context of a new pursuit of historical authenticity during the period, something typical of the Italian Renaissance. It also served to legitimize devotion to the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin Mary, a cult recently established in the Netherlands that relied strongly on ‘true portraits’, believed to have been painted by Saint Luke. Josse van Cleve’s Muskegon panel may have been ordered by a member of the Antwerp Confraternity of the Seven Sorrows.
Maurice Saß (Universität Hamburg, Deutschland): Spiegelschau im Garten Eden. Amico Aspertinis Genesis-Stich
This paper focuses on Amico Aspertini’s engraving Genesis Scene with Fall, Expulsion, Adam and Eve after the Fall, and Abel’s Sacrifice, a complex allegory that places a self-mirroring man in the middle of the events. The aim of the article is to highlight the general importance of the mirror motif in representations of the biblical story of Eden. On the one hand, the seduction of Eve was understood as a visual event and as an act of artful illusion. On the other hand, envy (invidia) or, alternatively, pride (superbia) was considered to be the reason for the original sin. And either personification had a mirror as its main attribute. Aspertini’s engraving takes up this understanding of the fall to show that his own art and more generally all figurative imitations thrive on the productive tension between diabolic allurement and divine vision.
Judith Ostermann (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Deutschland): Ein Herz für die Heimat – der Doge Francesco Erizzo († 1646) und das zentrale Organ der Republik Venedig in San Marco
In agreement with the last will of Doge Francesco Erizzo († 1646), his heart was buried in San Marco, the political and religious center of the Serenissima, next to the high altar and thusad sanctosto the relics of Venice’s patron saint. This unprecedented privilege not only disrupted the city’s restrictive policies concerning public monuments, but her republican ideals in general. Due to the significance of the heart in Christian eschatological thinking and corporal state doctrines his burial elevated Erizzo to the status of an absolute ruler threatening the Republic’s sacred constitution. In Venice, however, individual and public interests were closely intertwined. This study therefore analyzes the heart burial in the context of Erizzo’s self-fashioning, Venetian state ideology, devotional practices, and collective memory.
Iris Wien (Universität der Künste Berlin, Deutschland): Day-light. A recent discovery in the art of painting. Ein kunstkritisches Pamphlet des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts
Henry James Richter’s 1817 pamphlet Day-light. A recent discovery in the art of painting; With hints on the philosophy of the fine arts, and on that of the human mind, as first dissected by Emanuel Kant has been read as a plea for naturalism in the context of early-nineteenth-century pleinair painting. The tract prompts painters to take the recently discovered phenomenon of colored shadows into account instead of basing their painterly practice on pictorial conventions. Although noticed, the peculiar form of the little treatise – consisting of thirteen pages of a fictive dialogue between artists and extensive notes devoted to fundamental epistemological questions – has not been further scrutinized. In the light of the sociopolitical conflicts of the time, however, the pamphlet takes on an allegorical dimension exceeding its art-critical objective.
Dieter Blume, Mechthild Haffner und Wolfgang Metzger, Sternbilder des Mittelalters. Der gemalte Himmel zwischen Wissenschaft und Phantasie, vol. 1: 800 –1200, vol. 2: 1200 –1500 (Kristen Lippincott, The Saxl Project, London, Großbritannien)
David Ganz, Buch-Gewänder. Prachteinbände im Mittelalter (Thomas Rainer, Bayerische Verwaltung der Staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen, München, Deutschland)
Michael Bockemühl, Bildrezeption als Bildproduktion. Ausgewählte Schriften zu Bildtheorie, Kunstwahrnehmung und Wirtschaftskultur, hg. von Karen van den Berg und Claus Volkenandt (Ingo Meyer, Universität Bielefeld, Deutschland)
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Carl Magnusson (The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA) : Le rococo, une construction historiographique : introduction
Marie-Pauline Martin (Le Musée de la musique, Paris, Frankreich) : ‹ Rococo › : du jargon à la catégorie de style
Today there is a consensus on the definition of the term ‘rococo’: it designates a style both particular and homogeneous, artistically related to the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI. But we must not forget that in its primitive formulations, the rococo has no objective existence. As a witty, sneering, and impertinent word, it can adapt itself to the most varied discourses and needs, far beyond references to the eighteenth century. Its malleability guarantees its sparkling success in different languages, but also its highly contradictory uses. By tracing the genealogy of the word ‘rococo’, this article will show that the association of the term with the century of Louis XV is a form of historical discrimination that still prevails widely in the history of the art of the Enlightenment.
Catherine Thomas-Ripault (Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, Frankreich) : Evasion temporelle et fantaisie créatrice : usage des peintures du XVIIIe siècle dans les fictions romantiques
After 1830, many Romantic authors, inspired by the delicate and poetic paintings of the eighteenth century, endeavored to recreate their mood in novels or short stories. Through those pictorial representations, they imagined a blithe, refined, and dreamlike world, tinged with melancholy, allowing them to forget their own colorless time and express a degree of nostalgia for a bygone age. In the style of Rococo painters, however, Romantics also emphasized imperfection and weakness, gently mocking the ornate and frivolous forms the eighteenth-century artists played with. From their perspective, Rococo art therefore remained in an inferior position within the artistic hierarchy. Its singular forms, however, echoed their own quest for fancy and originality, and ultimately enabled them to depart from earlier Romanticism.
Etienne Tornier (Musée des Arts décoratifs et du Design, Bordeaux, Frankreich) : « This new-born word is rococo ». Généalogie et fortune du rococo aux États-Unis
This article deals with the use of the term ‘rococo’ in the English language and more specifically in the United States, where it is today used to describe both the style of eighteenth-century cabinetmakers, and American mid-nineteenthcentury furniture. Yet, the term was not favored by furniture makers and dealers before the end of the nineteenth century. Offering a precise analysis of the roots of the term in the United States, this article sheds light on its semantic evolution since the 1830s, through a variety of sources including newspapers, art journals, and ephemera, and in relation with the fluctuating taste of middle- and upper-class American households throughout the nineteenth century.
Jean-François Bédard (Syracuse University, NY, USA) : La vitalité du décor : Fiske Kimball, du rococo au Colonial Revival
In 1943, the American historian of architecture Fiske Kimball (1888 – 1955) published The Creation of the Rococo, a milestone in the study of this movement. Thanks to a close examination of archival documents and drawings, Kimball sought to trace ‘objectively’ the evolution of the rocaille. Despite his claims to scholarly neutrality, however, Kimball multiplied value judgments in his writings. For Kimball, the rococo exhibited “vitality”, a quality he also found in the classical-inspired buildings of colonial America. Like other members of the conservative establishment, Kimball promoted these – and, more generally, the work of American Renaissance architects – as the only legitimate forms of contemporary architecture. The ‘vitality’ of Kimball’s rococo thus matched the one Anglo-Protestant elites celebrated in the Colonial Revival, a style they espoused to combat the ‘impurity’ of cosmopolitan Modernism.
Carl Magnusson (The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA) : Le rococo est-il décoratif ?
In Rococo historiography, the first half of the eighteenth century is generally described as the golden age par excellence of decoration. The so-called major arts are often considered to have played a lesser role in its artistic development. The period is thus systematically associated with artefacts produced by artisans, hence belonging to a less dignified category in the artistic hierarchy. In order to investigate the ideological background of this assumption, the article focuses on the debates on art which emerged, mainly in France, in the 1740s. These highly biased discourses, targeting the so-called bad taste of contemporary French painting and interior decoration, shaped a vision of the first half of the eighteenth century of which many aspects were later inherited by Rococo historiography, especially in its relation to decoration.
David Pullins (The Frick Collection, New York, NY, USA) : “Quelques misérables places à remplir”. Locating Shaped Painting in Eighteenth-Century France
This article addresses in depth for the first time the irregularly shaped canvases known as tableaux chantournés (cut-out paintings) that were produced in vast numbers by leading academicians between the 1730s and 1750s and occupy a tenuous place between fine and applied or decorative arts. Through an examination of the term’s first uses in regard to painting and eighteenth-century critics’ responses to these works, tableaux chantournés are positioned as a means of rethinking the extraction of painting from a richer visual field and the relationship of this medium-specific agenda to the historiography of the rococo.
Bérangère Poulain (Université de Genève, Schweiz) : Rococo et fugacité du regard : émergence et modifications de la notion de ‹ papillotage ›
The word ‘papillotage’ was introduced into art discourse by Roger de Piles in the late seventeenth century. Then, and throughout the eighteenth century, the term referred to an unpleasant physiological effect on the eye (a flickering effect) created by a disordered pictorial composition or insufficient contrast between colors. From the mid-eighteenth century, however, the term acquired a second and vaguer meaning in the context of moralistic and critical discourses. Essentially, the term became synonymous with superficiality, instability, and frivolity. Used in diatribes against voluptuous paintings, ‘papillotage’ reflected an ideological posture. A similar use of the term is evident in historiographical discourses characterizing Rococo art.
Laurence Terrier Aliferis, L’imitation de l’Antiquité dans l’art médiéval (1180–1230) (Répertoire iconographique de la littérature du Moyen Âge, Études du RILMA, vol. 7) (Paul Williamson, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Großbritannien)
Jérôme Delaplanche, Un tableau n’est pas qu’une image. La reconnaissance de la matière de la peinture en France au XVIIIe siècle (Christoph Martin Vogtherr, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Deutschland)
Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Monumenti antichi inediti spiegati ed illustrati, Roma 1767. Text, hg. von Adolf H. Borbein und Max Kunze | Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Monumenti antichi inediti spiegati ed illustrati, Roma 1767. Kommentar, hg. von Adolf H. Borbein, Max Kunze und Axel Rügler (Martin Dönike, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Deutschland)
Guillaume Cassegrain, La coulure. Histoire(s) de la peinture en movement, XIe – XXIe siècles (Anna Degler, Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland)
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Jana Gajdošová (University of Cambridge, Großbritannien): The Lost Gothic Statue of St. Wenceslas at the Old Town Bridge Tower
This article suggests that a Gothic statue of St. Wenceslas once stood in front of Prague’s Old Town Bridge Tower in a location where a miracle associated with the translation of the saint’s body occurred. Consequently, the statue complemented the east façade’s sculptural program but was also set away from it in order to signal the saint’s significance here. This location in turn encouraged the viewers below to interact with the statue in a very intimate way, and also to make a link between this canonized Bohemian ruler and Emperor Charles IV. The emperor’s own statue on the façade, fashioned with the symbols of St. Wenceslas, leaned out of its architectural niche in order to look down at the saint-king and to emphasize the link between the two rulers.
Stephanie Lebas Huber (City University of New York Graduate Center, USA): Silver and Sanctified Bookkeeping: St. Eligius and the Smelting of Sin in the Wittenberg Heiligtum
This article examines Lucas Cranach’s renderings of two non-extant silver gilt reliquaries made in the likeness of St. Eligius from the electoral Heiligtum in Wittenberg. The significance of Eligius’s dual roles as both a metalworker for the Merovingian kings and as the bishop of Noyon bestowed the prince-electors in Wittenberg, most notably Frederick the Wise, with the ability to cleanse their treasury of all sin associated with indulgences. To explain the prominent place given to Eligius’s image in the collection, the article investigates his connection to French royalty, Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV’s valorization of his cult, the meaning attributed to his image in vernacular legends, and the evolving administrative role of bishops across the Middle Ages.
Marianne Koos (Université de Fribourg, Schweiz): Verkörperung – Entkörperung bei Rembrandt
This article analyzes the painterly formation of pictorial subjects of embodiment and disembodiment since the early modern period. Starting with Gerhard Richter, Quattrocento painters, and Titian, it focuses on Rembrandt and his late group portrait The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deijman (1656). The subject of this picture is a dissection of a man’s brain – and hence the surgeons’ search for the seat of the human soul and the motion of life. In the motif of the corpse, Rembrandt performs a radical operation with paint layers that historical sources described with the terms “doodverwe” and “lyffverwe” (“dead color” and “body color”). Rembrandt’s pictorial formation is a distinctly complex answer to the soulless, lifeless corpse’s state of being, which has been reduced to no more than an image. At the same time, the dead body is the place in which Rembrandt reflects the act of painting as a way of working with the tension of embodiment and disembodiment, of giving and taking life, with color.
Mattias Pirholt (Södertörns högskola, Schweden): »Gott segne Kupfer«. Goethes Kunstbeschreibungen im Zeitalter der semitechnischen Reproduzierbarkeit
This study investigates how the experience of reproductions – drawings, copperplate engravings, woodcuts, lithography, plaster casts, and so forth – influenced Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s conception of art in general and his descriptions of art (e.g., ekphrases, reviews, and autobiographical accounts) in particular. Well acquainted with the technologies of reproduction of his time, Goethe, often in collaboration with Johann Heinrich Meyer, acknowledged the crucial role of reproductions for the understanding of the productive idea of the original work. Experiences of reproductions and comparisons between copies, drafts, and the original enabled Goethe to grasp the idea as an ever-transforming productive constant of the continuous process of becoming of the work.
Regine Prange (Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland): Ornament und Abstraktion: die »Arabeske als Triebfeder der Moderne«?
Contrary to the current discourse on world art, which revives the notion of the ornament as a global artistic phenomenon that transgresses cultures and connects tradition and modernity, this article will elaborate how this concept actually follows a modernist ideology, which evades the crisis of a specifically Western art term in order to reconcile abstraction and representation. The recourse to artisanal procedures of jewelry making motivated an aesthetics of process, within which social practice and its depiction seemed to be unified. Semper’s consequential idea of the ornament as a symbol of art entered exemplary artist theories of the twentieth century. This mythology of the ornament is, however, to be differentiated from the ornament-critical materiality of the paintings of Mondrian, Pollock, and Warhol, which simultaneously nourish a radically iconoclastic impulse, questioning the claim of totality of the classic panel painting by negating the identity of line and surface, figure, and ground.
Joseph Leo Koerner: Bosch and Bruegel. From Enemy Painting to Everyday Life (The A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC; Bollingen Series XXXV, vol. 57) (Matthijs Ilsink, Radboud Universiteit, Niederlande)
Kai-Uwe Hemken, in Zusammenarbeit mit Ute Famulla, Simon Großpietsch und Linda-Josephine Knop (Hg.): Kritische Szenografie. Die Kunstausstellung im 21. Jahrhundert (Image, Bd. 64) (Anja Dorn, Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung Karlsruhe, Deutschland)
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Stefanie Seeberg (Universität zu Köln, Deutschland) und Susanne Wittekind (Universität zu Köln, Deutschland): ›Reframing‹ – Umarbeitung, Ergänzung und Neurahmung von Kunstwerken in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit. Einleitung
Susanne Wittekind (Universität zu Köln, Deutschland): Neue Einbände für alte Handschriften
A book cover encloses the manuscript inside. If it is elaborate, it distinguishes the manuscript as a precious and valuable object (as a frame does for a painting), all the more so when an old manuscript is clothed in a new and costly cover. In conjunction with added texts and other traces of use, one can grasp from this ‘reframing’ a shift of a text’s meaning. This is especially true of Gospel Books, which were handled as symbols of God in liturgical contexts. From the High Middle Ages on, treasure inventories and oath formulae were added to Gospel Books. They indicate the importance of an old Gospel Book for the religious community as a material proof of the age and rank of their church. Gospel Book covers from the High and Late Middle Ages demonstrate this by using spolia, old-fashioned forms and material, or invoking venerated founders. Often shaped as pendants, they seem to be arranged for display.
Doris Oltrogge (TH Köln, Deutschland): Aneignung und ›Neuinszenierung‹ von Evangeliaren in institutionellem und liturgischem Gebrauch – drei Fallbeispiele
The paper presents three case studies of ancient Gospel Books which were reworked and adapted to changing liturgical and monastic practices. The reasons for the choice of a specific older manuscript are discussed, which could be the real or presumed connection with the foundation, but also the archaic character of the script. The methods of reworking include visual signs like bookmarks, nota bene signs, or display scripts to emphasize lecture texts. Whereas these revisions concentrate on the Gospel Book as a textbook, in another case the transformations focus on the whole manuscript as an object. The introduction of miniatures, purple pages, and gold script combined modern elements with allusions to ancient practices to create a tradition of ancient fundatio.
Patricia Strohmaier (Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Deutschland): Vom liturgischen Textil zum Werbebanner? Zwei byzantinische Goldstickereien im Dom zu Halberstadt
Two church banners made from a garment of latefourteenth-century Italian lampas display two late-twelfth-century purple veils embroidered with gold. Bishop Konrad of Krosigk, having acquired a treasure of relics, textiles, and liturgical objects during the Fourth Crusade, donated these to his cathedral. The article focuses on how the two veils, which originally had veiled the chalice and the paten in the Byzantine mass, were reused and reframed. There is evidence that at first they were displayed upon or close to the altar, representing the cathedral’s new wealth by their costly appearance and Greek inscriptions evoking the splendor of Byzantine textile production. When sewn on church banners in the fifteenth century, they assumed the role of an advertisement for the Byzantine treasure, an attempt to reaffirm the marginalized cathedral’s prestige.
Heike Schlie (Universität Salzburg, Österreich): Vom Ambo zum Retabel – Das Klosterneuburger Goldschmiedewerk von Nikolaus von Verdun
The only signed work by Nicholas of Verdun, the metalwork which adorned the former ambo in the Klosterneuburg Monastery, was integrated into a foldable altarpiece around 1330 and thus transformed into a new medium. Besides being reframed, it was combined with new monumental paintings on the rear side of the triptych. It was not only handled differently and defined spatially in completely different terms, but the precious enamel- and metalwork could be hidden from sight by closing the wings. The added plates of metalwork at the center of the middle panel break up the hieratical and Eucharistic program of the original work, focusing the program on devotional affects. The metalwork and paintings form a sophisticated iconic reference system, pointing to the provost Stephan of Sierndorf, who had ordered the reframing. His painted figure, kneeling before the crucified Christ, reveals itself not only as the image of the donor, but also as the ideal beholder of the work or a further exemplum of perfect piety.
Ulrike Bergmann (TH Köln, Deutschland): ›Reframing‹ mittelalterlicher Skulpturen: Verschönerung, Umnutzung, Neuinterpretation?
Medieval wooden sculptures were in most cases reframed several times during their history. Sculptures have thus been repainted or reused in different contexts. The reasons for these reframings have been different, for example change of taste, use, or place, or repair of damage. Sculptures of the Virgin Mary were especially subject to these later changes, because they were the focus of veneration and thus were exposed to touching hands, burning candles, and incense. In addition, the image of the Virgin was often exposed to fashionable new stylings. Medieval reframings can only be traced by very close examination of the object and are difficult to link with a specific historical context. Therefore, this study concentrates on some examples of medieval sculptures in Cologne, which have been the subjects of intense studies by restorers and art historians.
Stefanie Seeberg (Universität zu Köln, Deutschland): Neupräsentationen und Umdeutungen des Heiligen Kreuzes von Polling vom 13. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert
The center of the baroque altarpiece of the Augustinian Monastery of Polling in South Germany forms the so-called Holy Cross. Its current presentation, dated from 1763, is the last of a sequence of four well-documented presentations of a Romanesque wooden cross since 1230. This cross is an excellent example for analyzing and comparing several methods of re-presenting a historic art object as well as for understanding the motivation for such re-presentations, which are grounded on changes of the spiritual function of the object. In its first reframing, the cross received a covering of gilded parchment and a painting of the crucifix on this ground coat. In a fundamental publication from 1994, this covering was compared with a reliquary holding the old venerated wooden cross. However, looking at the context of medieval instructions for painters and the material evidence of extant contemporary paintings, this interpretation becomes questionable: the covering with parchment was a common and technically motivated procedure rather than a spiritually motivated one.
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Steven J. Cody (Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne, USA): Andrea del Sarto’s Disputation on the Trinity and the “Sighs of Holy Desire”
Andrea del Sarto’s Disputation on the Trinity (1517) engages with powerful traditions of spiritual learning that can be traced back to St. Augustine’s theological writings. This paper asks how and in what ways Andrea’s altarpiece might belong to such a rich intellectual history. The analysis connects Augustinian notions of desire and reform to the painting’s iconography and to the artist’s composition and treatment of color. This line of inquiry not only has exciting implications for the study of Renaissance altarpieces, it also lays the groundwork for a larger study of Andrea del Sarto and of his contributions to the period’s sense of spiritual reform, broadly conceived.
Klaus Endemann (Kirchheim, Deutschland): Giulio Romano und Andrea Palladio. Die Landshuter Residenz Herzog Ludwigs X. und ihre Rezeption in den frühen Palastkonzepten Palladios
The palace of Duke Ludwig X in Landshut provides insight into the research concerning the development of Andrea Palladio. The palace is a link that illuminates the relationship between Palladio and Giulio Romano. For the “German wing,” the still unknown architect presented a remarkably innovative design. The duke had a second palace built behind the first after he had seen the Palazzo Te. The form of the “Italian wing,” with its refined combination of palace and villa, supports the authorship of Romano. That Palladio, for his famous project for Iseppo da Porto, took over the site in Landshut designed by Romano confirms the close relationship between the two architects. In I Quattro Libri, Palladio would later name the combination of the palace and the villa Casa degli antichi.
Miriam Volmert (Universität Zürich, Schweiz): “Framing and Fashioning of Images”: The Pictorial Invention of the Art Lover in Daniel Mytens’s Portrait of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel (ca 1618)
The article examines Daniel Mytens’s portrait of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, and the pendant portrait of his wife, Aletheia Howard (ca 1618), in relation to early modern rhetorical concepts in portrait painting and art theory. Particular focus is placed on the pictorial meaning of the depicted sculpture gallery in Lord Arundel’s portrait in its relation to the sitter. The author argues that the composition subtly transforms certain patterns of a long-standing pictorial code in portrait painting, which can be identified as a type of “picture within a picture.” Already established in the Italian portrait tradition, an integrated little picture or window view next to the sitter was a widespread formula in seventeenth-century Dutch and British portraiture, in order to praise a sitter’s moral and political virtues. Mytens reinterprets this portrait type, in this way inventing a pictorial mode of highlighting the particular virtues of the art lover: his portrait, through its adaptation of the picture-within-a-picture formula, praises the earl’s noble act of collecting antiquities while at the same time strongly emphasizing his intellectual strength.
Desmond Kraege (Université de Lausanne, Schweiz): “Must the Arts Suffer from the Progress of Reason?” Four Slave Statues, the 1790 Place des Victoires Debate, and the Urban Monument in Early Revolutionary France
In June 1790, the Assemblée nationale decided that the statues of slaves surrounding the monument to Louis XIV on the Place des Victoires were offensive to the inhabitants of some French provinces, and should be removed. This triggered a wide-ranging debate in the Parisian press, with calls for the conservation of the monument or for the use of the statues in a new setting. The discussion dealt with the monument’s iconography, but also with its aesthetic and historical significance, and reflected wider debates on slavery and on the (un)popularity of the monarchy. The article analyses these arguments, points out the importance of public monuments in Parisians’ relation to their city, and shows how the removal of these statues was part of a climate of construction, rather than destruction.
Eleanor F. Moseman (Colorado State University, USA): Die Zukunft der Vergangenheit: Richard Oelze (1900–1980) and Post-war Reflection
The Surrealist artist Richard Oelze’s postwar enterprise was one of inner reflection and personal questioning linked to the broader project of coming to terms with the past. This essay takes a critical view of his artworks and his automatist Wortskizzen to assess the manner and extent to which Oelze utilizes his artistic practice as a mode of working through his, and Germany’s, complicity with the Nazi regime. Analysis of the Wortskizzen exposes how verbal probing informs Oelze’s visual expression of inner turmoil, while implied gaps and voids in paintings and drawings puncture space as well as time, illuminating memory and blending the past with the present. Oelze’s serious play with word and image in turn invites his viewers to release repressed memories through reflective contemplation.
Klaus Krüger: Politik der Evidenz. Öffentliche Bilder als Bilder der Öffentlichkeit im Trecento (C. Jean Campbell, Emory University, USA)
Anna Degler: Parergon. Attribut, Material und Fragment in der Bildästhetik des Quattrocento (Thomas Golsenne, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Art de Nice, Frankreich)
I segni nel tempo. Dibujos españoles de los Uffizi (exh. cat. Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando), ed. by Benito Navarrete Prieto (María López-Fanjul, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Deutschland)
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Anna Degler (Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland) und Iris Wenderholm (Universität Hamburg, Deutschland): Der Wert des Goldes – der Wert der Golde. Eine Einleitung
Barbara Schellewald (Universität Basel, Schweiz): Gold, Licht und das Potenzial des Mosaiks
The article focuses on the complex interaction between gold and light in the very specific medium of mosaic in Late Antiquity and Byzantium. Studying the metaphoric qualities of light/gold and its qualitative distinctions in early Christian and Byzantine sources leads us to an understanding of the complex function of gold or golden tesserae in script and images. As gold is understood as light, mosaic seems to be a more or less perfect medium as it is not stable, but dependent on the changing light. The gold ground is transformed in every moment by light. Mosaic can thus be understood as the medium with the greatest capacity to bridge – virtually – the gap between the visible and the invisible divine light.
Stefan Trinks (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Deutschland): Eingehüllt in Gold und Bein – Die techné des Chryselephantin als ›Mitstreit‹ im Mittelalter
Gold and ivory were considered to be among the most valuable materials in the Middle Ages. Whereas ivory would represent skin or bone tissue, gold could simultaneously signify and disguise the presence of God. Their iconology is tied to the objects they are attached with, heightening their value. What has not been studied in great depth so far, however, is the range of combinations and the nature of the relationship of both combined as “chryselephantine” in the antique manner. In examples of mostly Carolingian and Ottonian front covers and reliquaries made from gold and ivory between the ninth and eleventh centuries, it is evident that both were treated as equally valuable and that their combination results not in a paragone but a synagon, or aesthetic comradeship.
Vera-Simone Schulz (Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz – Max-Planck-Institut, Italien): Bild, Ding, Material: Nimben und Goldgründe italienischer Tafelmalerei in transkultureller Perspektive
With a special focus on processes of artistic transfer between the Apennine peninsula and other regions in the Mediterranean and beyond, this paper sheds new light on haloes and gold grounds in thirteenthto fifteenth-century Italian painting. By means of case studies, it analyzes both (1) the role of haloes and gold grounds within the specific logic of the images, and (2) the impact of imported artifacts (their techniques, decoration, and materiality) on Italian panel painting as well as the complex interplays between imports and local production. Elucidating the intersections, frictions, and fields of tension between visual and material culture, this paper contributes to discussions on transmedial and transmaterial dynamics, transcultural art history, and the multireferentiality of gold.
Anita Hosseini (Universität Hamburg, Deutschland): Haptik und Optik. Jean-Siméon Chardins Malerei als ›Schule des Sehens‹
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, philosophers explored the idea of sight through mind games and practical experiments. Investigating initial vision and tackling the problem of (actual and hypothetical) blindness, they eventually realized that sight itself only transmits the idea of forms and colors. In conclusion, the visual understanding of plasticity and distance postulates an exchange between optical and tactile experiences. Beholding paintings requires the same correlation, as the painted canvas also evokes the illusion of space and body. In his still lifes, Jean-Siméon Chardin uses colors in an activating manner and creates paintings that oscillate between real and represented matter. But they also show the presence of light and air and visually dematerialize the painted objects. Hence, these seem to disperse in light and color and to float in a sphere between painting and beholder. The outcome of this is an experience of a mere vision.
Chiara Frugoni: Quale Francesco? Il messaggio nascosto negli affreschi della Basilica superior ad Assisi (Julian Gardner, University of Warwick, Großbritannien)
Annette Tietenberg (Hg.): Die Ausstellungskopie. Mediales Konstrukt, materielle Rekonstruktion, historische Dekonstruktion (Angela Matyssek, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Deutschland)
Susanne von Falkenhausen: Jenseits des Spiegels. Das Sehen in Kunstgeschichte und Visual Culture Studies (Kristin Marek, Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung, Karlsruhe, Deutschland)
79 (2016), Heft 3
Kunstgeschichte und Digital Humanities
Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel (PSL Research University Paris, Frankreich): Voir plus grand, plus loin, plus long. Le numérique au service d’une « histoire totale » de l’art
Raphael Rosenberg (Universität Wien, Österreich): Bridging Art History, Computer Science and Cognitive Science: A Call for Interdisciplinary Collaboration
Koenraad Brosens, Klara Alen, Astrid Slegten, Fred Truyen (University of Leuven, Belgien): MapTap and Cornelia. Slow Digital Art History and Formal Art Historical Social Network Research
The essay introduces MapTap, a research project that zooms in on the ever-changing social networks underpinning Flemish tapestry (1620–1720). MapTap develops the young and still slightly amorphous field of Formal Art Historical Social Network Research (FAHSNR) and is fueled by Cornelia, a custom-made database. Cornelia’s unique data model allows researchers to organize attribution and relational data from a wide array of sources in such a way that the complex multiplex and multimode networks emerging from the data can be transformed into partial unimode networks that enable proper FAHSNR. A case study revealing the key roles played by women in the tapestry landscape shows how this kind of slow digital art history can further our understanding of early modern creative communities and industries.
Christine Tauber (Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, München, Deutschland): Neue Identitäten – neue Genealogien: Jacques-Louis Davids künstlerische Selbstdarstellung nach dem 9. Thermidor 1794
How and to what extent did the collapse of the terreur affect the self-stylizations of Jacques-Louis David? Which strategies of artistic self-representation and self-legitimization did he use after 9 Thermidor 1794 and the preceding “patricide” of King Louis XVI, and did they undergo a similarly fundamental change as France’s political culture of the time? To discuss these questions, the article draws upon written “ego-documents” as well as paintings by David, including his famous self-portrait of 1794, which he painted while in prison. The article investigates David’s self-stylizations as autonomous, fatherless artist, and how he compensated for the loss of his father by constructing a new genealogy: claiming for himself the role of the père de l’école davidienne, with his disciples figuring as his “sons” in aestheticis – a model already underlying his Socrates of 1787. David’s aesthetic concept of the pre-Revolution period is outlined by referring to the Horatii (1784) and Brutus (1789). As can be shown, the Republican ideal manifest in both works will much later reoccur in the Léonidas (1799–1814), this time to show the failure of a moderate republicanism under the conditions of Napoleonic imperialism.
Sebastian Zeidler (Yale University, CT, USA): Portraiture under Epoché: Matisse According to Husserl
This article considers a range of issues in Henri Matisse’s art from around 1906 through the lens of Edmund Husserl’s theory of the image: the treatment of light and color in Matisse’s Young Sailor II, his combination of image and sign in the portrait of his daughter Marguerite, and the interaction between marks and sheet in his drawings. In Matisse’s art and Husserl’s phenomenology, just what was a portrait; and what, more broadly, was the relation between a modern self and his world? The answers to these questions suggest why Husserl has become such a popular reference point for Bildwissenschaft. A century ago, Husserl and Matisse did what contemporary image culture is now doing as a matter of course. In putting their world under epoché, they experienced it by expelling themselves from it.
Hans-Rudolf Meier (Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Deutschland): Inkorporierungen: Spolien als Instrument der Mimesis in der Gegenwartsarchitektur
The contribution investigates the reuse of building elements (spolia) in recent architecture as a means of enhancing similarity. To design or build with spolia is today a common practice of mimetic expression. Contemporary architects, unlike those of the end of the last century, no longer seek contrasts in keeping with concepts such as bricolage or deconstruction so much as they attempt to evoke connections. Spolia figures repeatedly and increasingly as a means of preserving continuity. Three variations in the use of spolia are discussed, each exhibiting a different function for the reused elements: as design tools, as guarantors of authenticity, and as additive elements. In the latter two cases, suggestions of sympathetic or contact magic are in evidence.
Jesper Svenningsen (Statens Museum for Kunst, Dänemark): The Danish Fate of Two German Collections. Pieces of the Baron von Häckel and C. L. von Hagedorn Collections Rediscovered
The article aims to cast new light on two important collections of paintings in eighteenth-century Germany and how they ended up (complete or in part) in Danish ownership. The fate of the Hagedorn collection is well studied, yet extremely few pieces of the collection have so far been identified in modern collections. Two such paintings – both of them among Hagedorn’s favorite pictures – are published here. The 1763 sale of the collection formed by Baron von Häckel is equally well known, though it has escaped everyone’s attention that a further 75 paintings were separated from the rest and presented to the Danish king. About half of these pictures can still be found in the Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen.
Jürgen Müller: Der sokratische Künstler: Studien zu Rembrandts Nachtwache (Kimberlee A. Cloutier-Blazzard, Simmons College, MA, USA)
Hubert Robert, 1733–1808: Un peintre visionnaire (exh. cat. Paris, Musée du Louvre and Washington, National Gallery of Art), ed. by Guillaume Faroult (Nina L. Dubin, University of Illionois at Chicago, IL, USA)
Cordula Grewe: The Nazarenes: Romantic Avant-Garde and the Art of the Concept (Stephen Bann, University of Bristol, Großbritannien)
Wolfram Pichler und Ralph Ubl: Bildtheorie zur Einführung (Etienne Jollet, Université Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne, Frankreich)
79 (2016), Heft 2
Zur Lage der Kunstgeschichte
Christiane Hille (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Deutschland): Traditions of Art History, East and West
Kunstgeschichte und Digital Humanities
Hubertus Kohle (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Deutschland): Kunstgeschichte und Digital Humanities. Einladung zu einer Debatte
Max Marmor (Samuel H. Kress Foundation, NY, USA): Art History and the Digital Humanities
Steffen Siegel (Folkwang Universität der Künste, Essen, Deutschland): Wechselkurse der Form
Laurence Terrier Aliferis (Université de Genève, Schweiz): Joseph christophore dans la Fuite en Egypte: transmission d’un schema iconographique spécifique à travers le Moyen Age
In the vast majority of representations of the Flight into Egypt, the child is huddled upon the Virgin’s lap or held in her arms. In addition to this traditional model, some interpretations of the Flight into Egypt show the child riding on Joseph’s shoulders or being held in his arms. The inventory of the representation of Joseph christophore from the fifth century to the mid-fifteenth century in Latin and Greek Christendom provides an insight into the frequency of this iconographic specificity of the Flight into Egypt, its diffusion and regional adaptations, as well as its meanings, via theological and exegetical texts.
Shira Brisman (University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA): Nachrichten aus Nürnberg: The Annunciation as an Epistolary Address
When, around the turn of the fifteenth century, the art of northern Europe developed a pictorial motif whereby an angel delivers the news of the Incarnation in the form of a sealed document, the material properties of ink and wax metaphorically evoked the unique properties of the inscription of divine form upon Mary’s virginal body. The social impact of this communication, the dissemination of the message to a community of recipients, could be strengthened by references to the re-transmittable nature of the announcement, as enforced by other indicators of sociability detectable in different portions of the narrative scheme. The Tucher Altarpiece in Nuremberg and Michael Wolgemut’s altarpiece for the cathedral of St. Mary in Zwickau present two examples of uses of the epistolary Annunciation that may have influenced Albrecht Dürer, who employs the motif in his woodcut series The Life of the Virgin, which also contains, along with this pictorial form of broad address, more narrowly articulated messages to his contemporaries in the form of written words.
Irina Chernetsky (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel): The Creation of the World by Virgil Solis
Virgil Solis (1514 – 1562), a prosperous artist and printmaker from Nuremberg, dedicated his final major work to an illustration of Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Although the designs of most of the woodcuts for this first extensive German series were borrowed from the Metamorphoses series of the French artist Bernard Salomon (c.1506 – 1561), a closer study reveals several notable differences in the details of individual scenes, among them The Creation of the World. Placing Solis’ work within the tradition of the printed illustrated editions of Ovid’s magnum opus, which had by then crystallized mainly in Italy and France, the article argues that Solis’ illustration drew not only on the earlier Metamorphoses, but also on printed German Bibles, following the parallels taken up at the time between the Creation story in the Metamorphoses and the Creation story in Genesis.
Cordula Grewe (University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA): Die Renaissance des Epos im romantischen Fresko
If the nineteenth century is correctly seen as an age when a new and acute historical awareness reshaped the cultural sensibility, then it is no small irony that in the age of history, history painting was in crisis. One reaction to this crisis is the subject of this paper. Focusing on one of the Nazarenes’ most enchanting fresco projects, the decoration of the Casino Massimo in Rome after major epics by Dante, Tasso, and Ariosto, it traces the reworking and redefinition of history in painting by the German Nazarenes. In so doing, it examines the transformation of history painting into symbolic representation, and maps out the narrative structures, aesthetic strategies, and amalgamation of temporalities that carried this process and were produced in the process.
Sophie Junge (Universität Zürich, Schweiz): Art Is Still Not Enough. Bilder von AIDS im Spannungsfeld zwischen Kunstanspruch und politischer Mobilisierung
The paper examines the reception of HIV/AIDSrelated artworks from the 1980s by comparing four New York exhibitions from the early 1990s and 2010s. It argues that to this day artworks dealing with AIDS are bound to political and moral demands of former activists from the AIDS movement in New York. This politicization of historical images of AIDS is striking since the disease has lost its fatal threat in Western countries and political constellations have changed. Yet current exhibitions focus only on activist, politically motivated responses to the epidemic in order to represent an “appropriate” remembrance of AIDS. Thirty years after the climax of the epidemic, images of AIDS are currently integrated in the canon of art history, while they are continuously claiming their political efficacy.
Meredith Parsons Lillich (Syracuse University, NY, USA): The So-Called Sainte-Chapelle Windows of Soissons Cathedral: Another Look
The stained glass in the axial chapel of Soissons Cathedral was moved there from the nave in the late eighteenth century. It was made circa 1250 by the “principal atelier” of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, and consists of fragments that survived the Huguenot attacks of 1567. This study establishes that these figural fragments glazed the nave aisles, while coeval grisailles – which survive only minimally – glazed the nave clerestories. The grisailles, known chiefly from nineteenth-century drawings, thus provide evidence for the nave glazing in the Lower Chapel of the Sainte-Chapelle, which was lost in 1690.
Ulrike Gehring und Peter Weibel (Hg.): Mapping Spaces. Networks of Knowledge in 17th Century Landscape Painting (Miriam Volmert, Universität Zürich, Schweiz)
79 (2016), Heft 1
Ulrich Pfisterer (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Deutschland): Hans im Glück: Kunstgeschichte heute
Matthias Schulz (Hochschule für Bildende Künste Braunschweig, Deutschland): Der codierte Christus. Figuration als Bild-Text-Dynamik im De laudibus sanctae crucis des Hrabanus Maurus
Among the early medieval illuminated manuscripts of the ninth century, the De laudibus sanctae crucis (Cod. Reg. Lat 124) by Hrabanus Maurus offers one of the most complex interplays of image-text relationships based on carmina figurata. It unfolds different levels and strategies of figuration. The specific aspects and qualities of its iconic practice can be described as a kind of coding. The coded subject and leitmotif of the cycle, which affects and gives structure to all other miniatures, is the central figure of Christus triumphans. The essay focuses on the detailed description and analysis of this symbiotic dynamic of a figural impulse that combines seeing, reading, and imagination into a meta-concept of figuration.
Constanze Hager (Berlin, Deutschland): Caravaggios Medusenschild von 1597 – ein Gorgoneion?
Caravaggio’s emblematic Medusa is mostly regarded as a representation of the mirrored decapitation of the Gorgon and thus as a reflection on Perseus’ protective shield. This essay proposes a new interpretation: Caravaggio’s Medusa is an adaptation of the antique Gorgoneion. The Gorgoneion historically depicted Medusa’s head with its petrifying gaze, which was placed on the shield of Athena. Due to its symbolic and protective power, the Gorgoneion became a frequent subject in art and handicraft well into Baroque art. Caravaggio’s contemporaries – including the poets Gaspare Murtola and Giambattista Marino – left witness that they interpreted the image as a Gorgoneion. In addition, the image itself contains elements that buttress this interpretation, including, inter alia, the green surface of the shield and the shadow. Both the historic accounts and the painted details therefore render an interpretation of the painting as Gorgoneion very likely.
Stefano Pierguidi (Università degli Studi di Roma »La Sapienza«, Italien): Giulio Mancini e la nascita della connoisseurship
The role of Giulio Mancini as the father of connoisseurship has been recently questioned on the grounds that Mancini never aimed to discuss the attributions of contemporary works of art. Generally the birth of modern connoisseurship, with figures such as the Richardson brothers, has been linked to the growing art market of the 18th century, and the most important 17th-century forerunners, such as Marco Boschini, acted as dealers as well: all these connoisseurs dealt with the attributions of paintings of the previous centuries. This paper explores the roots of connoisseurship in the topography work of Mancini, author of the first modern artistic guide to Rome. Mancini, studying the early Renaissance frescoes in Rome (Jacopo Ripanda, Pastura, Pinturicchio, Baldassarre Peruzzi), discussed Vasari’s biographies and suggested new attributions with a modern approach that clearly anticipates the method of later connoisseurs.
Nina Amstutz (University of Oregon, OR, USA): A Self-Portrait as Landscape Painter: Caspar David Friedrich and Phrenology
The article explores a precocious moment of interest in how the brain mediates aesthetic perception. Around 1810, Caspar David Friedrich drew himself with several features that deviate from his earlier self-portraits, including two bumps between the brows at the root of the nose. These cranial protuberances were associated with a cognitive faculty that the phrenologist Franz Joseph Gall insisted is common among landscape painters: Ortssinn, characterized by a heightened ability to remember places and to measure distance and perspective. I argue that Friedrich’s drawing is a self-portrait as landscape painter, where the signifiers of identity are no longer conventional artistic or sartorial attributes but rather the contours of the cranium and, by implication, the fabric of the artist’s mind.
Hans Dickel (Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Deutschland): Deutsch-deutsche Kunstgeschichte am Beispiel von Hanne Darboven und Werner Tübke
The histories of art in former East and West Germany have been described as evolving synchronously. This article, arguing from another point of view, analyzes two works from the 1980s, both of them outstanding in purpose and size: Werner Tübke’s monumental painting Frühbürgerliche Revolution in Deutschland in the Museum Bad Frankenhausen (formerly GDR) and Hanne Darboven’s Bismarckzeit in the Kunstmuseum Bonn (FRG). The investigation into their subjects, forms, and contents within their historical contexts – the period of Erich Honecker’s claim for a socialist tradition and Helmut Schmidt’s Realpolitik, respectively – reveals a greater distinctness grounded on different concepts of art, i.e., anti-modern (Tübke) versus modernist (Darboven). Nevertheless, in their view of German history a common kind of skepticism about teleology may be discerned, which is based on the artists’ shared experiences of Germany’s disastrous contribution to the twentieth century.
Peter Knüvener (Städtische Museen Zittau, Deutschland): Ein Relief mit der Geißelung Christi im Kulturhistorischen Museum Stralsund und einige Bemerkungen zu einer niederländischen Werkgruppe aus der ersten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts
The collection of the Stralsund Kulturhistorisches Museum contains a hitherto almost undocumented carved relief of the Flagellation of Christ. Its style suggests that it belongs to a group of widely disseminated works of Flemish origin. For example, similar stylistic details can be observed in the retables of the Capela da Santo Antão da Faniqueira in Portugal, and the Aegidienkirche, now in the St. Annen-Museum, Lübeck. This article will argue that the carvings of the Heiligenthaler altarpiece in the church of St. Nikolai in Lüneburg, traditionally held to be locally produced work, should also be reattributed to this group of works. Consequently, the attribution of a further relief illustrating the Temptation of Christ in the collection of the Liebieghaus Museum (Frankfurt a. M.), also currently regarded as having originated in Lüneburg, should be reconsidered in light of this new classification.
Donal Cooper and Janet Robson: The Making of Assisi. The Pope, the Franciscans, and the Painting of the Basilica (Serena Romano, Université de Lausanne, Schweiz)
Hannah Baader: Das Selbst im Anderen. Sprachen der Freundschaft und die Kunst des Porträts 1370 – 1520 (Fabiana Cazzola, Hochschule der Künste Bern, Schweiz)
Cornelia Jöchner: Gebaute Entfestigung. Architekturen der Öffnung im Turin des frühen 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts (Studien aus dem Warburg-Haus, Bd. 14) (Britta Hentschel, ETH Zürich, Schweiz)
Claire Zimmerman: Photographic Architecture in the Twentieth Century (Martin Hartung, ETH Zürich, Schweiz)
78 (2015), Heft 3/4
Zur Lage der Kunstgeschichte. Einladung zu einer Debatte
Peter Geimer (Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland): Jenseits der turns. Zwei Beobachtungen
Whitney Davis (University of California, Berkeley, USA): Knowing Art Historically
Serena Romano (Université de Lausanne, Schweiz): Per la data della Crocifissione nel transetto nord della chiesa inferiore di Assisi
This article offers a new date for a most renowned fresco, the Crucifixion in the north transept of the Lower Church of St. Francis, Assisi. The author identifies the Franciscan kneeling beside the Cross between St Francis and St Anthony as being General Minister Gonsalvus de Valboa (Gonsalvus Hispanus). Gonsalvus’ well known connections with St Anthony help to understand the historical frame of the fresco, suggesting a date between the Pentecost of the year 1310 and Gonsalvus’ death in April 1313. This date will work as a terminus ante quem for the Infancy frescoes in the same transept and as the reference point for other paintings by Giotto such as the Santa Reparata polyptych in Florence and the Stefaneschi polyptych in the Vatican.
Jakub Adamski (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Polen): Architektur als Instrument territorialer Machtpropaganda. Über die Westfassade und die Vorhalle des Frauenburger Domes und ihre Beziehungen zu Nürnberg und Prag
The article aims to analyze the western part of the cathedral at Frombork/Frauenburg in Prussia,which was the seat of the bishops of Warmia/Ermland. Some details of the cathedral suggest that the church investors wished to emulate the Frauenkirche in Nuremberg, founded by Charles IV. Both buildings share the decoration of triangular gables in the form of deep niches with hanging trilobes in their upper parts. The porches at both Nuremberg and Frombork have rib vaults decorated with applied figures of angels. The cathedral was completed in 1388 by Henry III Sorbom, who was the former secretary of Charles IV. The bishops sought to maintain independence from the Teutonic Order, so they emphasized their position and alliance with the emperor. In that context, the formal similarity of the two buildings becomes understandable.
Joost Keizer (University of Groningen, Niederlande): Style and Authorship in Early Italian Renaissance Art
The history of the concept of style remains remarkably understudied. Recent studies cultivate the impression that style has only been recognized as a concept since the sixteenth century, in the decades leading up to the publication of Vasari’s Vite. But fourteenth- and fifteenth-century authors already wrote about the special relationship between artists and their works in terms of style. This essay charts the history of the concept of style in Italy from its inception in the fourteenth century to the early sixteenth century. Its main focus is the early formation of individual style. One important aim of the essay is to show how individual style related to fourteenth- and fifteenth-century realism, the dominant aesthetic category of the time, and to theories about artistic authorship.
Thomas Renkl (Herdecke, Deutschland): Vier nackte Frauen? Zum Sichtbaren und zum Nichtsichtbaren in Dürers Kupferstich mit den Zeichen »O·G·H« und »1497«
For the contemporary audience, Albrecht Durer’s engraving Four Naked Women was unprecedented in its treatment of nakedness as well as in its dealing with traditional iconography. Even today, the print appears enigmatic. While early scholarship discussed the figures as witches and further research suggested various characters of ancient myths, recent interpretations tend to read the scene merely as an occasion to show female nudes (“sex sells”). Focus ing on what is visible in the print, this study aims to decode the identity of the figures and the plot they are hiding. As Durer added a later component and as every single detail, including the ceiling decoration with the abbreviation “O·G·H,” is based on ciphers of the most widespread cultural tradition, the artist’s intention is evident: to make this innovative image comprehensible not only for humanists, but also for the general public.
Berthold Kreß (The Warburg Institute London, Großbritannien): The Bible in a Bedroom: Paul Lautensack’s Paintings for Ursula Gundelfingerin (c. 1538)
In 1538 the Nuremberg painter Paul Lautensack (1477/78–1558) wrote an open letter to Ursula Gundelfingerin, in whose house he had decorated a bedroom with paintings supposed to show the true meaning of the Bible. This text, in which he defended his paintings against the claim that they were incomprehensible, was printed in 1619 but hitherto ignored by scholars. It is here identified as the first known Programme, in which an artist explained his own creation (thus predating Vasari’s Ragionamenti). The article reconstructs the lost scheme based on the Programme, contemporary Nuremberg interiors and Lautensack’s manuscripts, especially Nuremberg, GNM, Hs. 3147. It explains its elements such as references to the Biblical text, alphabets, the Genealogy of Christ and images of celestial prodigies.
Thierry Greub (Universität zu Köln, Deutschland): Der Platz des Bildes und der »Platz des Königs«: Diego Velázquez’ Las Meninas im Sommer-Arbeitszimmer Philipps IV.
Diego Velazquez’s Las Meninas (1656) is one of the most discussed paintings in European art history. It is therefore all the more surprising that the original circumstances of its display have hitherto not been the subject of research. A great deal of evidence suggests that the original display location of Las Meninas – the summer study of Philipp IV – and its setting in the context of the other paintings presented in this room allow an interpretation that goes beyond a “monadic” reading of the painting. According to this interpretation, the subject of Las Meninas becomes the safeguarding of the royal succession by the Infanta Margarita during a time of uncertain anticipation of a male heir.
Fernando Loffredo (Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., MD, USA): Shortly Before Rome: New Works by Pietro Bernini for the Mozzagrugno Monument in the Cathedral of Lucera
The funerary monument of the twin brothers Giulio and Ascanio Mozzagrugno, dated 1605, is still preserved in the Cathedral of Lucera. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that two Putti and the main relief, representing the Virgin and Child, are works by Pietro Bernini and were carved in Naples shortly before the artist moved to Rome. This monument is also the product of a new local elite. The Mozzagrugno family was able to obtain an a la page tomb from Naples, architectonically up-to-date according to the new tendencies imported from Rome by Domenico Fontana and Giovann’Antonio Dosio, and to hire Pietro Bernini, who later would become one of the artists of the Papal court as well as the father of the iconic Baroque artist of the seventeenth century.
Patrick Kragelund (Danmarks Kunstbibliotek, Kopenhagen, Dänemark): A Rediscovered Mark Antony and Cleopatra by Gérard de Lairesse in Copenhagen
The article examines the motif of a painting from c. 1678 – 1681 by Gerard de Lairesse that since 1759 has been part of the Copenhagen Royal Collection (KMS sp305). Originally believed to represent Mark Antony and Cleopatra, it has since the midnineteenth century been labeled Alexander and Roxane. For a number of reasons, the original title seems prefer able. First, the woman in the painting seems royal; second, she resembles rather closely de Lairesse’s two other Cleopatras, in Amsterdam and Toronto. The decoration of her palace, finally, is exactly similar to what one sees in the famous Amsterdam painting. Given de Lairesse’s inventive manner in providing suitable settings for his protagonists, it seems to follow that we here, once again, have an event taking place in the palace of Cleopatra in Alexandria.
Berit Wagner: Bilder ohne Auftraggeber. Der deutsche Kunsthandel im 15. und frühen 16. Jahrhundert (Larry Silver, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA)
Kristel Smentek: Mariette and the Science of the Connoisseur in Eighteenth-Century Europe (Valérie Kobi, Universität Bielefeld, Deutschland)
78 (2015), Heft 2
Claudia Rückert (Berlin, Deutschland): Ein Kopffragment aus der Zisterzienserabtei Ebrach im Mainfränkischen Museum Würzburg, eine Zeichnung aus der Ebracher Klosterchronik von 1660/61 und das Streben nach Erlösung im Jenseits
As early as 1948 Theodor Müller recognized the fragment as an angel’s head. However, the thesis of this article is that the fragment is not, as recent studies propose, a head of an angel of Annunciation, but one of Coronation. At one time, Mary was depicted as crowned by the angel during her Assumption on the tympanum of the former gate chapel of the Cistercian Abbey in Ebrach, which is only documented by a drawing in the abbey’s chronicle from the seventeenth century. In this context, the angel’s head is part of an iconography of the liminal zone, which embodies the subjects of death, damnation, and redemption at the gate chapel founded by the noble family Fuchs in 1276 as a funerary chapel. Moreover, the results of the analysis suggest that the sculptor of the tympanum, the converse John, was trained in the setting of Strasbourg Cathedral.
Sarah K. Kozlowski (The University of Texas at Dallas, USA): Circulation, Convergence, and the Worlds of Trecento Panel Painting: Simone Martini in Naples
Simone Martini’s panel painting of Saint Louis of Toulouse, made in Naples around 1317, is a picture of a world and a picture in a world: a fictive pictorial space in which objects and materials from elsewhere converge, and a fashioned object woven into a network of things in circulation. The present article asks how, in figuring the painting’s complex relationship to these real and imagined worlds, Simone explored radical ideas about the materiality and representational work of panel painting. The article weaves together close pictorial analysis and study of primary texts to make new revelations about one of the great formal and technical achieve ments of the Renaissance in Italy, and to pose new questions about the place of fourteenthcentury Italian painting in a world context.
Marianne Koos (Université de Fribourg, Schweiz): Sur/face. Manet malt Mlle E.G.
This article presents a new interpretation of Manet’s picture of Eva Gonzalès in the act of painting. The basis for this is the identification of the picture on the easel of Eva Gonzalès and of a second “icon” of the rococo, to which Manet refers in his panel. In a broader perspective it is argued that this painting, produced for the Salon of 1870, has special significance not only in regard to Manet’s transition from quoting from the Museum of the Old Masters to “a faux-Impressionist mode” (as Carol Armstrong describes Manet’s late painting), but also in regard to the bigger topic of metaphorizing painting as “makeup,” which turns out to be downright programmatic. The term “makeup” for painting is a metaphor that pervades thinking about the possibilities and conditions of painting since early modern times. It is through this term that the status of painting between the poles of surface and illusion has been paradigmatically reflected and negotiated. Based on the example of this one programmatic picture, the article faces the broader question of how Manet – in referring to the female practice of makeup, the consumer culture of modern Paris, and the commodity fetishism of the rococo – has reinterpreted painting as such.
Claudia Hattendorff (Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Deutschland): Selbstfindung und Selbstverleugnung. Hiroshi Sugimotos Dioramas im Kontext
The Japanese-American photographer Hiroshi Sugimoto started out as an artist in 1975 with a series of photographs titled Dioramas. This article attempts to identify the precise context in which Sugimoto conceived this series and invented himself as an artist. It also studies the principle of animation that characterizes the photographs, and establishes the photographic medium as the arena in which fundamental questions concerning art and artists are examined. The article states that photography was central to Sugimoto’s attempt to establish himself as an artist on the East Coast of the United States because the medium denies its own existence and can therefore be termed transcultural.
Diane Finiello Zervas (London, Großbritannien): New Documents for the Oratory of Orsanmichele in Florence, 1365–1400
After the Florentine communal grain loggia in piazza Orsanmichele was converted into an Oratory for the miracle-working image of the Virgin of the Confraternity of Orsanmichele, it underwent an ambitious decorative programme between 1358 and 1400. Many of these projects have been extensively documented. However, a cache of recently discovered documents further enriches our knowledge about the Oratory’s appearance as originally planned, and the development and placement of some of its known projects. The new documents also reveal a previously unknown endeavour: protective bronze grilles devised by Simone di Francesco Talenti for the limestone traceries that he designed for the loggia’s ten monumental arches in 1365.
Rainer Kahsnitz: »Die Elfenbeinskulpturen der Adagruppe«. Hundert Jahre nach Adolph Goldschmidt, in: Zeitschrift des Deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft 64, 2010 (Hermann Fillitz, Universität Wien, Österreich)
Nanna. Entrückt, überhöht, unerreichbar. Anselm Feuerbachs Elixier einer Leidenschaft (Ausst.-Kat. Museum Wiesbaden und Hamburger Kunsthalle), hg. von Peter Forster (Gesa Lehrmann, Pattensen, Deutschland)
78 (2015), Heft 1
Beate Söntgen (Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Deutschland): Der Ort der Kunstkritik in der Kunstgeschichte. Eine Einleitung
Julia Voss (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Deutschland): Wer schreibt die Kunstgeschichte? Kritik, Kunstwissenschaft, Markt und Museum
In his famous essay, Inside the White Cube. Ideologies of the Gallery Space (1976), the artist and art critic Brian O’Doherty conceived an unusual model of art history: the house of modernity. With his house as counter-model, O’Doherty proposes an antithesis to the most popular model of art history: the family tree. Both concepts can be sharply separated. While O’Doherty’s house is an artifact that is made by men, the family tree grows on its own, without any external intervention. The article examines the positions and roles that are occupied by criticism, art history, market and museum in each of these models.
Melanie Sachs (Deutsches Dokumentationszentrum für Kunstgeschichte – Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Deutschland): Die Gegenwart als zukünftige Vergangenheit. Zur Rechtfertigung des
kunstkritischen Urteils in Geschichten der Kunst um 1900
The article examines the place of art criticism in art history in German-speaking regions around 1900. It shows that while the concepts of art history and art criticism were conceived as antagonistic at the discursive, theoretical level, in practice their respective fields were constantly overlapping and interpenetrating. Looking at a specific case of such an entanglement – the critical judgement of contemporary art in art-history writing circa 1900 and the strategies by which it justified itself – the article demonstrates how this particular historic constellation forced art historians making critical judgements to take refuge in a hypothetical place in the future and to regard the present as a future past.
Kerstin Thomas (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Deutschland): »The art historian among artists«. Kunstkritik und Kunstgeschichte bei
This essay discusses Meyer Schapiro’s conceptions of art criticism and art history on the basis of mainly unpublished texts. Schapiro establishes analogous criteria for art criticism and for art history in demanding that they adhere to scholarly standards such as observation, confirmable evaluation and, in the case of art criticism, falsification and, in the case of art history, critical relevance. The claim of validity alone generates subtle distinctions. In this context Schapiro grants art criticism great potential. He thus sees in the art critic’s hightened subjectivity the basis for a political position that enables self-reflection and social impact. This essay contends that by arguing in this fashion, Schapiro establishes art criticism as a critical and discursive practice with its own claim to knowledge.
Tobias Vogt (Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland): Zur Verwissenschaftlichung der Kunstkritik. Rhetorische Muster in Texten
Since the beginnings of art criticism, writings on contemporary art have been characterized by the use of literary rhetoric. Such criticism was meant to offer readers normative judgements of taste in an entertaining manner. Recently, a change seems to have taken place. An objective and neutral style, comparable to that found in scientific writings, distinguishes reviews and criticism. The article aims to trace this development throughout several historical stages. By comparing a text on Impressionist painting from the 1870s to some of today’s writings on contemporary art, it examines the ways in which this trend towards scientific objectivity in writing on art manifests itself and which institutional forces are operating in the background. The close connection of texts to their subjects, and accordingly, of art criticism to contemporary art and its historiography, nevertheless persists.
Isabelle Graw (Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste – Städelschule, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland): Leben ist viel wert. Über Kunstkritik und Kunstwissenschaft im Zeichen von
Entgrenzung und neuer Ökonomie
Aesthetic judgment is based on the ability to define clearly the scope of art and what lies outside of it. Considering, however, the much-invoked dissolution of the arts, such judgment faces fundamental difficulties because the boundaries – between art and its other, between art and life – have proven themselves at least since the historical avant-garde to be highly unstable and fragile. The opening of the arts toward living and working conditions obviously does not mean that the aesthetic and the social spheres coincide, but rather they configure each other mutually in a new way. The article investigates how this mutual concept of art and society, which sometimes is initiated by the artistic works themselves, affects their critical assessment.
Bernd Wolfgang Lindemann (Gemäldegalerie Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Deutschland): Wer ist der Mönch mit dem Bart? Ein Beitrag zur Ikonographie und
zur ursprünglichen Bestimmung von Filippo Lippis Berliner Anbetung im Walde
Not least due to the impressive atmosphere of the dense depiction of landscape, one painting in the Berlin Gemäldegalerie is able to charm visitors: Filippo Lippi’s Madonna in the Forest. The painting is identified with that mentioned in an inventory of the Palazzo Medici written in 1492 as a depiction of St. Mary adoring the child recumbent at her feet, with St. John, God the Father, the dove of the Holy Spirit, and St. Bernard; the painting was used as the altarpiece of the chapel at that time. This article asks whether the identification of the monk is correct, and whether the history of the painting’s interpretation is not owed to an erroneous confidence in a false entry in that inventory.
Charles M. Rosenberg (University of Notre Dame, IN, USA): Rembrandt’s Etching of The Stoning of St. Stephen and the
In 1635, Rembrandt created a small etching depicting the stoning of St. Stephen (B. 97). This work is unusual, since, with the exception of a number of etchings depicting St. Jerome, Rembrandt made very few hagiographical prints. An analysis of the ways in which Stephen’s martyrdom was represented in the early modern period, as well as its theological and political associations in the Netherlands during the seventeenth century, suggests that Rembrandt’s creation of an etching focusing on Stephen’s violent death was motivated in part by a desire to critique the continuing conflict between the Remonstrant and Counter-Remonstrant factions in the Dutch Republic and Stadholder Frederik Hendrik’s shifting alliances. Rembrandt’s association in the early 1630s with Jan Uytenbogaert, one of the authors of the Remonstrance, may have encouraged the artist to produce this print.
Sibylle Aßmann-Beck (Hamburg, Deutschland): Aneignungsstrategien des Fremden. Die Sicht des Orients in Bild und
Text um 1800
The barren oriental landscape often presents itself to occidental travelers as topography without any significant landmarks. To reflect these extraordinary circumstances, the first travelling artists either opted for a mere scientific approach by focusing entirely on the facts or forced the unfamiliar subject into well-accepted pictorial structures. However, to convey an impression of the overwhelming vastness and magnificence of the oriental landscape, new compositional concepts needed to be developed. This led to a more individualized perception, as first found in the writings of Dominique-Vivant Denon, whose illustrations, however, still remain within the boundaries of traditional landscape art. It was David Roberts who first incorporated the subjective view into the pictorial arts.
Hanno Tiesbrummel (Berlin, Deutschland): Delacroix’ Doppelporträt von Chopin und George Sand
Due to the fame of Delacroix’s sitters, what is depicted in his double portrait of Chopin and George Sand has gained much more attention than how it is depicted. But it is exactly through close examination, especially of the characterization of gazes, the manner of painting and the peculiar position between portrait and history, that an interpretation emerges concerned with the connections between the material and the immaterial, or, in this special instance, between painting and music.
Max Seidel: Padre e figlio. Nicola e Giovanni Pisano (Helga Kaiser-Minn, Hemsbach, Deutschland)
Rose-Marie Ferré: René d'Anjou et les arts. Le jeu des mots et des images (Svea Janzen, Berlin, Deutschland)
Monica Stucky-Schürer: Eine immerwährende Krönung. Charles VII (1403–1461) und die Throntapisserie im Louvre (Eberhard König, Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland)
Martin Hirsch: Die spätgotische Tonplastik in Altbayern und den angrenzenden Regionen (Gerald Volker Grimm, Bonn, Deutschland)
Ruth Grönwoldt: Paramentenbesatz im Wandel der Zeit. Gewebte Borten der italienischen Renaissance (Anna Rapp-Buri, Basel, Schweiz)
Dürer. Kunst – Künstler – Kontext (Ausst.-Kat. Frankfurt a.M., Städel Museum), hg. von Jochen Sander (Thomas Schauerte, Albrecht-Dürer-Haus, Nürnberg, Deutschland)