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Keller, Barbara, Klein, Constantin, Anne, Swhajor, Christopher F., Silver, Ralph W., Hood, and Streib, Heinz. "The Semantics of 'Spirituality' and Related Self-identifications: A Comparative Study in Germany and the USA". Archive for the Psychology of Religion [Abstract; PDF].
Streib, H. (2008). More Spiritual than Religious: Changes in the Religious Field Require New Approaches [pdf]
Streib, Heinz & Hood, Ralph W. (2011). “"Spirituality" as Privatized Experience-Oriented Religion: Empirical and Conceptual Perspectives”. Implicit Religion 14.4: 433 - 453. Pdf
Being "spiritual" has become increasingly popular in the last 30 years. Many in the U.S.A. self-identify as "spiritual" or even as "spiritual, but not religious." In many European countries, we see a similar pattern even if on lower frequency levels. Are we witnessing a "spiritual turn" or a "spiritual revolution"? Despite the popularity of being "spiritual," it is not clear however what "spirituality" really means. Survey results portrait the frequencies of religious, spiritual and secular orientations, but fall short in information about the semantics, about the functional characteristics and psychological correlates, and about the biographical contexts of these contemporary orientations. Results from our research answer at least some of these questions.
Heinz Streib (project leader), Ralph Hood (supervisor of research in the U.S.), Barbara Keller and Christopher Silver (PIs in Bielefeld and Chattanooga) recently completed the Cross-cultural Study on "Spirituality" funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation))
Based on questionnaire data from respondents in Germany (N=773) and the U.S.A. (N=1113), the aim of this project has been the differential cross-cultural study of "spirituality." Analyses focus on
- the semantics of "spirituality" in subjective definitions (free entries in the questionnaire), semantic differentials and results from an (IAT) experiment;
- on the investigation of psychological correlates such as personality traits, attachment, psychological well-being, religious schemata, and pro-social attitudes and
- on the biographical context by means of (faith development) interviews with selected sub-samples in the U.S. (N=72) and Germany (N=50).