Universität Bielefeld

© Universität Bielefeld

Institut für
interdisziplinäre Konflikt- und Gewaltforschung

Group-Focused Enmity in Europe


 Short description:

Based on Gordon Allport’s assumption on the interrelation of prejudice towards different outgroups, the concept of group-focused enmity places group-specific prejudices in an overall context of anti-democratic mentalities. “Group-focused enmity” describes the syndrome of interlinked negative attitudes and prejudices towards groups identified as “other”, “different” or “abnormal” and assigned inferior social status. These take the form of anti-immigrant attitudes, racism, anti-Semitism, anti-Muslim attitudes, sexism and homophobia as well as prejudices against other identified groups. Despite their distinctiveness, different types of prejudice share a common core of an ideology of unequal status. Individuals who share this ideology look down upon outgroups regardless of these groups’ specific identity. We investigated the broad extent, major determinants and possible causes of group-focused enmity on the basis of a telephone survey of  representatives samples in eight European countries (n = 1.000 per country): Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Poland, and Hungary.

  • Duration:
  • 2006-2010 (Survey 2008)

  • Third-party funding:
  • Yes

  • Funded by:
  • Compagnia di San Paolo, Volkswagen Foundation, Freudenberg Foundation, and two more unnamed foundations

  • Project manager:
  • Prof. Dr. Andreas Zick
    Prof. Dr. Beate Küpper


  • Project staff:
  • The project was realized within a team of experts from each participating country: Pavel Boski, Bertjan Doosje, Miles Hewstone, Nonna Mayer, Roel Meertens, Antal Örkény, Marta Penczek, Cicero Pereira, Alice Ramos, Guillaume Roux, Katharina Schmid, Jorge Vala, Luca Váradi, Alberto Voci, Ulrich Wagner, Carina Wolf, Anja Zimmermann

  • Literature:
  • Zick, Andreas; Küpper, Beate; Hövermann, Andreas (2011): Die Abwertung der Anderen. Eine europäische Zustandsbeschreibung zu Intoleranz, Vorurteilen und Diskriminierung. Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung.

    • Can be searched for in PUB