The current climate warming may, before long, result in major changes of living and environmental conditions within the ecosystems of the Northern zones. Milder winter temperatures of the last decades have resulted in a shift of the distribution area of many plant species towards northern latitudes or higher altitudes. The expected increase in dry and extremely hot periods is-at least on a regional level-putting considerable pressure on the ecosystems in Europe. For a better understanding of the responses of plant species to environmental and climate changes the adaptedness and adaptability have to be investigated and to be linked to genetic differences. At this workshop the implications of historical and future climate changes on the dynamics and functionality of ecosystems and their adaptability in Northern regions from the Alps to Svalbard was presented. Furthermore, possible adaptive measures, in particular in terms of taking advantage of forests and in the field of nature conservation was discussed. In this context further research is needed to understand the impact of climate change on ecosystem dynamics and adaptation processes to climate change(s) on larger scales.