Spinath, F. M., Price, T. S., Dale, P. S. & Plomin, R. (im Druck). The genetic and environmental origins of language disability and ability: A study of language at 2, 3 and 4 years of age in a large community sample of twins. Child Development

This study investigated whether genes affect language impairment to the same extent as they affect differences in language ability following up
an earlier study of 579 four-year-old twins with low language performance and their co-twins (Viding et al., in press).  The present
study selected low-language twins from 6,963 pairs of twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) assessed for vocabulary and grammar
by their parents at 2, 3 and 4 years of age.  For impaired groups corresponding to the lowest-scoring 5% and 10% at each age, twin
concordances and model-fitting analyses indicated substantial genetic influence on the mean difference between affected children and the
population (h^2 g), generally higher than for individual differences for the entire sample (h^2 ).

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