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  • Glossar im Prozess

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Glossary in the process

Following the professional discourse

Bielefeld University has made gender mainstreaming a guiding principle in its equal opportunities practice. The term was coined at the 3rd UN World Conference on Women in Nairobi in 1985 and has become a permanent fixture in professional discourse. Gender equality practice uses numerous other terms to verbalise specific challenges, but also demands: Gender bias, gender budgeting, gender gap: these and other terms also document the state of the discussion. The glossary explains where the terms come from, what they mean and in which contexts they are used. It is currently being supplemented and expanded.

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Appointment controlling
The aim is to improve and ensure the quality of appointment procedures in order to exclude discrimination based on gender and to support the recruitment of women. For a systematic comparison of gender equality-related goals and their achievement, gender equality aspects are documented and analysed in all essential stages of an appointment procedure, and readjustments are made possible. Aspects can be: Proportions of women on the appointment committee and among reviewers, proportions of women in applications, invitations, reviews, list positions and appointments.
Dual Career
The number of so-called dual-career couples, in which both have a high level of qualification and career orientation, is constantly increasing, as are the mobility requirements placed on them. In
appointment and retention negotiations, those universities that offer perspectives to the academic partners, open up career entry opportunities and help the couples to better reconcile professional life and family are at an advantage. Nationwide, more than 40 universities have already joined the Dual Career Network Germany (DCND) and offer highly qualified academic couples targeted support in joint career planning. Regionally, more and more universities, research institutions and companies are joining together to form networks that support each other in finding jobs for the partners of highly qualified scientists.
Research-oriented gender equality standards of the DFG
In 2008, the member institutions of the DFG committed themselves to the "Research-Oriented Gender Equality Standards". This commitment was confirmed by the member institutions in 2017. The aim of the gender equality standards is to sustainably promote gender equality in science and academia, to integrate the potential of female scientists and academics into the science and academia system in the best possible way, and to achieve gender equality throughout the system. A distinction is made between structural and personnel equality standards, which correspond to the criteria of "consistency", "transparency", "competitiveness and future orientation" and "competence". Compliance with the "Research-Oriented Gender Equality Standards" is a decision-relevant criterion in the approval of DFG research networks.
Gender aspects in research and teaching
Integration into the content of research and teaching of aspects that take into account perspectives of gender diversity as well as of preferences, roles and life situations that (can) be expressed differently due to socially shaped gender relations[cf.]
Gender mainstreaming
Gender mainstreaming means to fundamentally and systematically consider the different effects on the life situations and interests of women and men in all social and political projects. Obligations to implement an effective equality policy in the sense of gender mainstreaming arise both from international law and from national constitutional law[cf.]
Gender budgeting
Financial flows are recorded on a gender-disaggregated basis and reviewed at regular intervals for potential discrimination, and appropriate measures are taken to reduce existing discrimination.
Gender bias
"Cognitive shortcuts help our brain to reduce the daily flood of information and thus fulfil useful functions. However, biases and hasty assumptions can subsequently occur, which have a detrimental effect on certain groups of people. Gender bias refers to systematic distorting effects that are shaped by gender-related stereotyping and prejudices and influence both perceptions and decisions. Gender bias operates not only in everyday situations, communication and decision-making, but also in science and research, for example in research design and results as well as in personnel policy decisions.[cf.]
Gender Consulting
Gender consulting is a service and advisory offer, e.g. in the preparation process of research funding applications, which supports applicants in the development of specific, needs-oriented gender equality strategies and measures and their implementation for the research network in the field. Especially in the case of equivalent research proposals, this aspect can be decisive for the funding decision.
Gender Controlling
The term controlling refers to processes and rules that contribute to securing and optimising the achievement of organisational goals. Gender controlling is the integration of the gender aspect into the planning and control processes of an organisation. It supplements an existing controlling concept in its functions of planning, analysis and review with the gender aspect[cf.]
Gender Visiting Professorship
The establishment of a gender visiting professorship as a "travelling professorship" by the faculties and departments is an instrument for strengthening gender-specific content in research and teaching. This will expand the communication and anchoring of gender-related knowledge in the individual disciplines and increase the visibility of women in science. The coordinator of the Gender Visiting Professorship supports Faculties in the temporary establishment and corresponding public relations work.
Gender competence
The development of gender competence should ensure the sustainable implementation of gender mainstreaming and gender equality policy. Gender competence is the ability of staff, people to recognise gender aspects in their tasks and to work on them in a gender equality-oriented way. It encompasses knowledge and awareness of the relevance of gender norms in shaping society, as well as the ability and willingness to question them. Gender competence is a prerequisite for successful gender mainstreaming. At the same time, the implementation of Gender Mainstreaming generates new gender competence. Gender competence is composed of the elements of willingness, knowledge and ability[cf.]
Integrate gender aspects into language, content, concepts and processes.
Gender research
Gender studies is concerned with the development of gender relations and their significance for the distribution of political, economic, social and cultural power in the past, present and future. Nationally and internationally, gender studies has developed into an integral part of the science system. Through gender studies, the realisation that gender relations represent one of the fundamental forms of social structuring and organisation has increasingly found its way into the individual sciences and influenced their research, publications and also their Content of teaching. The previously claimed (gender) neutrality of science has been successfully challenged. Today, gender studies makes an indispensable contribution to the development of social problem formulation competence. The fact that this contribution is still received controversially in part lies in its subject matter itself and illustrates the continuing need for discussion on gender as a scientific and social issue[vlg.].
Equality quota (§37a, HG NRW)
With the equal opportunities quota, the state of NRW has introduced an instrument to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in the appointment of female and male professors. The regulation is intended to increase gender sensitivity in appointment decisions and contribute to an increase in the number of female professors. It is the principle of the subject-group-related target quota according to the cascade model. This means that the amount of the equality quota to be set is determined by the proportion of women who abstractly fulfil the qualification requirements for a professorship in the subject group. The equality quota is set for a certain period of time (usually 3 years) and affects the appointment process in a subject group as a whole. After an internal university dialogue process, the gender equality quotas are set by the rectorates in agreement with the deans (usually for three years).
Cascade model
The cascade model serves as an orientation aid that can be used if the gap between a very low proportion of women in an area and the perspective goal of a 50% proportion of women is very large. Here, the cascade model can be an instrument for approaching the goal of parity in realistic steps.
Since the proportions of women, especially in professorships, at Bielefeld University are usually significantly better in a national and state-wide comparison, the cascade model does not necessarily guide the actions of many faculties at Bielefeld University when drawing up equality plans. Especially since Bielefeld University itself has the equal opportunities policy claim to be and remain better than the national and state average. Therefore, most faculties and departments set themselves ambitious and realistic goals that go beyond the goals in the context of the cascade model.
The NRW Women's and Gender Studies Network has set up a statistics portal for the subject-specific comparison of Bielefeld and national and state-wide figures.
Pick-Up Artists
So-called "pick-up artists" systematically approach female staff, people with the implicit aim of seducing them or even getting them to perform sexual acts. "Pick-up" is based on strategies and "tricks", such as deliberate border crossings and targeted belittling, in order to manipulate women. The principle of "no means no" is alien to this Philosophy. "No" is always just a "not yet" and is interpreted as a challenge. This is based on an image of gender and women that objectifies women and evaluates them primarily according to attractiveness. The principle of "pick-up" clearly goes beyond self-help of shy men or rehearsed attempts at flirting. Procedure (exemplary):
  • Approach in public places (university canteens, university halls, campuses, etc.): Usually many women are approached there one after the other with the same saying or the same ploy.
  • Monologuing/ insistent asking: Women are asked for their contact details and invited on "dates", sometimes also in written form, by handing over small pieces of paper etc. Refusals are ignored and the women are asked to go on a date. Refusals are ignored and the women continue to be verbally harassed.
  • Compliments are followed by humiliation: The method is called push & pull. First the woman is shown interest with a nice compliment and in the next step the compliment is rejected with a cheeky insult. This is meant to create a power structure by making the woman insecure.
  • Constant short touches: Physical contact is quickly established, e.g. a touch on the arm or similar. This is intended to simulate intimacy that would otherwise not occur so quickly.
  • Rejecting behaviour is not accepted: A "no" or "not interested" is not accepted.
  • So-called "pick-up artists" can act alone, but they often travel in small groups and are supported in their approach by a second man.
  • Programme for Women Professors of the Federal Government and the Länder
    In order to increase the proportion of female professors at German universities in a targeted manner, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), together with the Länder, launched the Programme for Female Professors in 2008, the continuation of which was decided in 2012 and again in 2017. The aim of the programme for female professors is to support gender equality at universities, to sustainably improve the representation of women at all qualification levels in the science system and to increase the number of female scientists in top positions in the science sector. A prerequisite for funding under the Programme for Women Professors is the submission of a gender equality concept and its positive evaluation by an external panel of experts. The successful universities are given the opportunity to have the first appointments of women to permanent W2 and W3 professorships funded with start-up financing.
    Total E-Quality Award
    Since 1996, the association TOTAL E-QUALITY Deutschland e.V. has awarded the TOTAL E-QUALITY award to organisations from science and industry for exemplary equal opportunities (and diversity) oriented personnel and university policies. It is awarded for a project duration of three years.
    Family-friendly university certificate
    With a successfully completed systematic auditing process, berufundfamilie gmbh awards universities and companies a certificate for a family- and life-phase-conscious personnel policy. As a rule, the certificate is valid for three years.

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